In standard setting interoperability is key. It ensures that products developed by different vendors can work together to provide the anticipated service to the user. For the creation of interoperable products, technical experts that participate in standard-setting are required to follow intellectual property rules (IPRs) set within each organisation. Divergences in opinion over IPRs have contributed to patent disputes. In order to prevent potential patent litigation, national and supra-national regulatory and enforcement bodies have urged technical standardisation organisations to outline clear IP rules for participating members (Comino and Manenti 2015; European Commission 2016; FTC, 2016; European Commission 2017). In this project, the focus is on standard setting for the internet within self-regulatory fora which correspond to the four layers of the internet architecture - Network, Internet, Transport and Application – where the IEEE, IETF, W3C and OASIS are the key players. These 4 organisations have recently updated their IPR policies.